This rich history has everything to do with the prophetic events evolving in the immediate future 


Do you think the detail of Christian history in the Bible would only include the Latins to the West and ignores the major events in Christian history to the East? What happened here projects us into our future with the addition of the now ‘Protestant’ world which is being again absorbed into Romanism.

An exciting vast & rich history lies in the prophecies of Revelation 9. It guides our understanding of events that were foretold that shape the world up until now. To make the trumpets a future event is a bad mistake. The Revelation of the church of the New Testament runs throughout its history until the Lord’s return & even beyond. 

The great thing about Istanbul is its associated history with the Roman empire, the Papacy and the Ottoman empire. It is a city on seven hills along with the Vatican and Jerusalem.  I will be filling in the gaps concerning the time prophecies that related to emperors Constantine, Justinian 1 who was the master of the Hagia Sophia, to the rule of the Ottomans with images as time allows. ‘The story of three cities’ that is really one city but with changing empires- Byzantium, Constantinople and Istanbul.  Click on the images below->

Byzantium started as a greek fishing village, then constantine made it his new capital and then it became Muslim Istanbul we know today. The Column of Constantine  also known as the Burnt Stone or the Burnt Pillar,is a Roman monumental column constructed on the orders of the Roman emperor Constantine the Great in 330 AD. It commemorates the declaration of Byzantium (renamed by Constantine as Nova Roma) as the new capital city of the Roman Empire. 

The meducas are of Greek origin in the Basilica Cistern which Justinian ordered to supply the city’s water. This is one of hundreds of ancient cisterns hidden underneath the streets and houses of Istanbul. Justinian did everything on a large scale. 

The Hagia Irene or Hagia Eirene is a Greek Eastern Orthodox church located in the outer courtyard of Topkapı Palace in Istanbul. There is no signs as to the significance of the tomb in its courtyard- that is thought to be the tomb of Constantine the great who was buried along with the 12 apostles tombs once found at the church of the 12 apostles which became the fatih mosque. The emperors dietfied themselves and such is considered by some as the significance of his original burial place. The church has relatively few visitors, for you see the conqueror eradicates the memory of those he conquered- some thing the church of Rome was a master at.

“At certain periods of their course, there can be no doubt that the civilization of the Eastern Church was far higher than that of the Western.”  Benjamin G Wilkinson, TRUTH TRIUMPHANT

Images above from Hagia Eirene. The battle of Arian theology was waged from Rome, to Alexander, to Constantinople. That is Trinitarians said that Christ was God in Himself, divine and Arians said Christ was created and I suspect that the truth was somewhere in between and the details are often missing in a Trinitarian theology. While many post-Nicene Christians asserted Arius’s death as miraculous—a consequence of his heretical views—several recent writers mention that Arius may have simply been poisoned by his opponents. So his enemies made fanciful stories concerning his death as a divine judgement. The church of Rome fostered brutality and superstition. 

The empire at Constantinople had been under the rule of Constantine II, who recoiled from accepting the extreme views on the Godhead, which had won the vote under his father, Constantine the Great, in the first Council of Nicaea.

In 381, the First Council of Constantinople declared that “The Bishop of Constantinople shall have the primacy of honour after the Bishop of Romebecause it is New Rome” (canon iii).

At the reactionary Council of Constantinople (A.D. 553) was being held. At that council, the churches of the Roman Empire surrendered their freedom to the Papacy. Offended at the unscriptural innovations of medieval European compromises, four large communities in the East — the Armenian, the Coptic, the Jacobite, and the Church of the East (often falsely called the Nestorian Church) — separated from the western hierarchy. Benjamin G Wilkinson, TRUTH TRIUMPHANT, 93-94

The hippodrome was built in Byzantium time and rebuilt to larger proportions by Constantine. 

The pattern of buildings in this area originally followed what was found in Rome for this was the ‘New Rome.’The seating capacity of the hippodrome is for more than 60,000. It was a social centre of Constantinople and still is one of the important social centres of the Islamic world today. A revolt against the Emperor Justinian by which Justinian was about to flee for His life ( but faced the rebellion through the influence of Theodora his wife) saw 30,000 die in this place in which the rebels were drawn into the arena and slaughtered by the emperor’s soldiers. The hippodrome has been the site of many bloody scenes, including recent years. 

Beautiful park areas lie between the monumental Hagia Sophia and the Blue Mosque. 

Sultan Ahmed Mosque or also called the blue Mosque. Why blue? Well it’s not blue on the outside but a bluish interior is where its nickname comes from but its really not that blue!  Pope Francis following in the footsteps of Pope Benedict comes for prayer to the Blue Mosque.

Built by the Ottoman sultan Ahmed I between 1609 – 1616 facing Hagia Sophia, in order to compete with it. Why? Because the Hagia Sophia was really a monument to the ‘Christian world.’

The Blue Mosque- Like all the big and important mosques of that time, also called the Sultan Ahmed Mosque ‘was built as a complex including a theological school, an imperial lodge, a kitchen for the poor, bazaar shops to raise money for the maintenance works, and a small library.’ 

12th January 2016 13 German tourists are killed outside the blue Mosque in the hippodrome by suicide bomber which is reminiscent of what happened to German tourists killed in Egypt in 1997.

Hagia Sophia represents most people’s image of Istanbul- it captures your attention immediately. Dog meeting early morning, then someone cleans the fountain from all the rubbish, a place for wedding photos.  The description of the heavenly city is of precious stones making up the material of the city. The glory of such will be that the saints will say ‘I don’t want to leave the place of God’s residence but remain in God’s presence forever.’  Rev 21:18 And the building of the wall of it was [of] jasper: and the city [was] pure gold, like unto clear glass.  21:19 And the foundations of the wall of the city [were] garnished with all manner of precious stones. The first foundation [was] jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, a chalcedony; the fourth, an emerald;  21:20 The fifth, sardonyx; the sixth, sardius; the seventh, chrysolyte; the eighth, beryl; the ninth, a topaz; the tenth, a chrysoprasus; the eleventh, a jacinth; the twelfth, an amethyst.  21:21 And the twelve gates [were] twelve pearls: every several gate was of one pearl: and the street of the city [was] pure gold, as it were transparent glass. 

“Decades had passed since Paul and Barnabas had raised up churches in that part of Syria which lay directly north of Decapolis. There numerous converts to Christ existed among the Gentiles and Jews. The majority of the new believers, however, in the northern Syrian region were from among the sons of Israel.

Syria had early attracted the attention of the cultured as a region in which to erect the magnificent in architecture. It was the richest and most prosperous province of the Roman Empire. It was also famed for culture and learning. In this section are found the grandest temples erected by the Roman emperors for the worship of the sun-god. In the midst of this land stood Antioch, the capital city. Later, when the emperor Justinian wanted, about 530, to build in Constantinople the finest church in the world, he searched diligently throughout Greek and Latin civilizations to secure a gifted builder, but was obliged at last to turn to Syria. Here he found the skill he sought. “The school of Antioch at that time surpassed almost every other in scientific and literary repute, and its methods dominated all the
East. Justinian, in the middle of the sixth century, wished to rebuild the cathedral of Constantinople, and from the school of Antioch he drew both his architects, Anthemius of Tralles and Isidore of Miletus.”” Benjamin G Wilkinson, TRUTH TRIUMPHANT, 32

Hagia Sophia once symbolic of Christianity. 

The crusaders looted the Hagai Sofia before the ottomans refaced her with the symbols of Islam

Justinian 1 was to regain all that had been lost since Constantine the great gathered together a Christian empire. That which was intended by Justinian 1 to represent Christianity with its domed roofs became with its minarets the symbol of Islam- the Hagia Sophia, symbolic of Istanbul. It was Justinian who authorised the power of Papacy for its own autonomy with the intention of the Emperor’s rule over the papacy.

A Pope with Arian affiliations was replaced by the Emperor with a trinitarian theology placing them

both with similar enemies, for it was Arian powers that were attacking Rome such as the vandals and ostrogoths. The Emperor of the East gave power to the Papacy in the West to fight heresy. At that time though the Papacy is in its infancy and the emperor had just given birth to what it would become. The Bible is pinpointing the Papacy’s conception date.

Note the 1260 years pointing us to the ‘little horn’ or Papacy was not years of Papal supremacy but rather beginning of  self-autonomy legislated by Justinian 1 giving it legal legitimacy, from which it grew to be a persecutor of heretics until it receives the deadly wound by losing its autonomy, estates and territories in 1798 when Napoleon legislated its annulment in 1798 .

        References to the 1260 year prophecy-

        Daniel 7:25		    "a time, times and half a time"
	Daniel 12:7		    "a time, times and half a time"
	Revelation 11:2		"42 months"
	Revelation 11:3		"1260 days"
	Revelation 12:6		"1260 days"
	Revelation 12:14	    "a time, times and half a time"
	Revelation 13:5		"forty-two months"
    A time is one year		=  360 days
    Times are two years		=  720 days
    Half a time is half a year	=  180 days
           Total		= 1260 days

    A month in prophecy is equal to 30 days, therefore forty-two months is 
    equal to 42 x 30 = 1260 days.

The third beast that ascends out of the bottomless pit is an apostate church that claims Christian heritage but it has changed the law of God and persecutes those that keep His law. Together with the lamb-like beast of Revelation 13 which makes an image to the beast, the little horn or little power (in fact the smallest country in the world) is found wanting for re-ascension to power by which in ages past and as predicted in near coming future, it persecutes and murders thousands in God’s name. Justinian’s legislation sets in motion what the papacy would become and only the Bible predicts this, but this is something Justinian would never have imagined. The two main figures that set the Papacy in motion are Constantine and Justinian. 

In 736 the Byzantine emperor, Leo III decided that the veneration of icons had gone too far and they were banned from worship in the East. For 100 years the churches were stripped of their images but the unveiling of this picture of Mary in Hagia Sophia marked the return of icons back into the church. The churches would learn their lesson too late when the Muslim invaders would strip the churches of the icons for good. 

Little Hagia Sophia Mosque formerly the Church of the Saints Sergius and Bacchus is a former Greek Eastern Orthodox church built by Justinian 1 with praise to the virtue of Theodora & himself still visible around the the ceiling of the mosque. This was a model of a far greater project; that is the Hagia Sofia. Theodora rose from daughter of a bear tamer & burlesque girl to a strong supporting partner for Justinian. The Muslims desired that which like the church of Rome, was a religious political system with eyes directed to Mecca rather than the desire of a better country, that is heavenly: wherefore God is not ashamed to be called their God:Hebrews 11:16. So they planted their Mosques in the churches of what was once Rome’s.

What made Constantinople valuable was its position. It was the maritime strategic value of the city that was a key to the eastern seas, which also protected the Roman Empire in the East until it finally collapsed a thousand
years later—in 1453. 

As they say position, position, position but position being valuable makes you a target for the enemy.  Ancient Constantinople guards the narrow waterway between the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara. A ship passing from the Black Sea passes through the first “strait,” the narrow passageway by Istanbul, into the Sea of Marmara and then through the second “strait” (the narrow passageway which is called the Dardanelles).  The Straits separate Asia from Europe. There is a small region on the western side of the Straits which is also included in the modern Turkish nation and has the important city of Edrine which was the capital of the Ottoman empire before Constantinople was captured. The “Straits” are key to the entire region.

The latin crusaders raped and pillaged the city for revenge in the 4th crusade. This made Constantinople vulnerable to destruction in its final assault.  How this all started was, with the threat of Muslims, the eastern emperor calls for aid from the Pope which started a wave of crusades over the coming centuries. The crusaders (80,000 men) from the beginning killed and pillaged and as time went by the number of latinos in the city grew and began to be resented. When Andronicus was made emperor, a self serving autocrat, at 65 he led a war that purged the city from Latin control- ‘The massacre of Latins’. However Andronicus murdered his 13 year old co-emperor and married his 12 year old widow. The Byzantines were appalled and Andronicus had his teeth pulled out one by one and his hands cut off and he was skinned with boiling water in the Hippodrome. 

The fourth crusade (1202-1204) was an army sent by Pope Innocent to Jerusalem to recapture Muslim controlled Jerusalem, first captured by Egyptian Ayyubid Sultanate- the strongest Muslim country of the time however it ended in the sacking of constantinople. There was bloodshed, rape and pillage, with horsemen ransacking the Hagia Sophia! Inside the Hagia Sophia pictured above.

The Protestant denominations are built upon that manuscript of the Greek New Testament sometimes called the Textus Receptus, or Received Text. It is that Greek New Testament from which the writings of the apostles in Greek have been translated into English, German, Dutch, and other languages. During the Dark Ages, the Received Text was practically unknown outside the Greek Church. Greek translation of the Old Testament held sway in the capital city of Constantinople and in most of the Near East. Latin translation which were adulterated lay in the West. Lucius which was received from the apostles and handed to Erasmus at the time of the reformation, had overseen the pure gospel in a time of corruption from Alexandria and Rome. Benjamin G Wilkinson, TRUTH TRIUMPHANT, 45

“The people of Constantinople, and almost everywhere, assemble together on the Sabbath, as well as on the first day of the week, which custom is never observed at Rome or at Alexandria.” At the Synod of Laodicea (c. A.D. 365) the Roman Catholics passed a decree that “Christians must not Judaize by resting on the Sabbath, but must work on that day…. But if any shall be found to be Judaizers, let them be anathema from Christ.”  

Thus this church law not only forbade its followers to sanctify Saturday, but also stigmatized as Judaizers those
who did. Benjamin G Wilkinson, TRUTH TRIUMPHANT, 51

Last Prophet or more to come?

 Born in Mecca one of the few cities of Arabia of that time, while finding solitude in the mountain caves of that area Muhammad received messages from the angel Gabriel.  Muhammad cites the prophets Noah and Abraham. Although Ishmael is never mentioned Islam believed the movement of destiny is through Ishmael rather than Isaac and their festivals in Mecca celebrate such. Jesus is recognised also but Muhammad is said to be the last prophet of God. To the off shoots of Judaism Christ said in  John 4:22 Ye worship ye know not what: we know what we worship: for salvation is of the Jews.  This statement of Jesus also applies to Christianity who disregard the Old Testament Jewish laws.  Islam reverences Friday and Rome Sunday and in the centre of both these religious political religions Jesus kept the Sabbath commandment and said keep my commandments.

The Bible says of Ishmael in Genesis 16:12 And he will be a wild man; his hand [will be] against every man, and every man’s hand against him; and he shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren.  

The prophecies of Muhammad are concerning his family and battle conquests during his life and after his death.  The Bible also prophesied to and far beyond the time of the rise of Islam as a religious political war power and empire and prophecies concerning it’s involvement in last day events. The prophecies of Muhammad fail to lead us to present day events. The Bible gives warning of the rise of a false prophet in the last days and this power is associated with the lamblike beast- Protestant America. The Spirit of Prophecy has also risen for our times and in the plainest language entreats us in matters of salvation. This website is full of those prophecies that began to be understood in 1844 and this was the beginning of the Seventh Day Adventist movement. God gave this insignificant people guidance through visions and prophecies because they chose to follow the Law of God and the testimony of Jesus.

Identifying the 1st power from the bottomless pit


From Albert Barnes preface notes on Revelation. Barnes said he had the ‘prevailing belief’ Revelation could not be explained & then gives this remarkable Testimony.
The above quote from a book on Revelation from 1897 tells us they had a better idea of prophetic interpretation than we generally do today. This should not be the case.

The first beast to ascend out of the bottomless pit -> Revelation 9:1 And the fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star fall from heaven unto the earth: and to him was given the key of the bottomless pit. 9:2 And he opened the bottomless pit; and there arose a smoke out of the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace; and the sun and the air were darkened by reason of the smoke of the pit. 9:3 And there came out of the smoke locusts upon the earth: and unto them was given power, as the scorpions of the earth have power. 9:4 And it was commanded them that they should not hurt the grass of the earth, neither any green thing, neither any tree; but only those men which have not the seal of God in their foreheads.


Now note the record of the historian Gibbons. “Remember,” said the successor of the prophet, “that you are always in the presence of God, on the verge of death, in the assurance of judgment, and the hope of paradise. Avoid injustice and oppression; consult with your brethren, and study to preserve the love and confidence of your troops. When you fight the battles of the Lord, acquit yourselves like men, without turning your backs; but let not your victory be stained with the blood of women or children. Destroy no palm-trees, nor burn any fields of corn. Cut down no fruit-trees, nor do any mischief to cattle, only such as you kill to eat. When you make any covenant or article, stand to it, and be as good as your word. As you go on, you will find some religious persons who live retired in monasteries, and propose to themselves to serve God that way: let them alone, and neither kill them nor destroy their monasteries: And you will find another sort of people, that belong to the synagogue of Satan, who have shaven crowns; be sure you cleave their skulls, and give them no quarter till they either turn Mahometans or pay tribute.”

Isaiah 9:15 The ancient and honourable, he is the head; and the prophet that teacheth lies, he is the tail.

The prophecies of Revelation 9 is not a new one but dates back to the 1840s when the first Revelations were being unravelled. 

Another large earthquake is imminent
An area near Bursa is where Osman became king of what was tribes.
Istanbul was surrounded. The Ottomans had control of Galata Tower before the final assault on the city. That is a stone’s throw away.

1st TIMELINE of Revelation 9- 5th trumpet

Revelation 9:5 And to them it was given that they should not kill them, but that they should be tormented five months: and their torment [was] as the torment of a scorpion, when he striketh a man.

The city of Bursa remembers the founder of the Ottoman empire where can be found the tomb of Osman 1 and his son.

In 1258 Othman or Osman become the King of the Ottoman tribes. “The Ottoman Empire began in 1299 after an Oguz warrior named Ertugrul and his son, Osman Gazi, arrived at the Empire of Rum in Anatolia (Asia Minor) from Central Asia. Upon his arrival, Ertugrul helped Seljuk Sultan Kaihusrev II to defeat Mongolian invaders at Eskisehir, and in so doing helped to save Seljuk’s Empire of Rum. In return, Seljuk gave Ertugrul and his son a land strip stretching from Eskisehir to Sakarya, all of which was in what is present-day Turkey. It was there that Osman started a small empire he called the Principality of Osman….Historically July 27 1299 is recognised as the date of the start of the Ottoman empire– “Osman I declares his Anatolian beylik (principality) to be independent of the Seljuq Dynasty Sultanate of Rum, originating the Ottoman Empire, with Söğüt as the original capital..” At this date there is individual autonomy for the new Ottoman empire.

Note :The name Gazi or Holy war was inspired or sanctified by the Koran.  Osam organised what was disjointed into a religious political system 


After Osman’s son Orhan Gazi took power in 1326, the Ottoman Empire’s influence increased further, just as the Seljuk’s Empire of Rum was waning. Orhan took over the empire of Rum, and it became part of the Ottoman Empire. “

Some have marked July 27, 1299, as the date, Othman, the founder of the Ottoman empire, invaded the territory of Nicomedia. But note that by history this is the date of individual autonomy as described above. From that time the Ottomans harassed and “tormented” the Eastern empire of Rome till July 27, 1449, the one hundred and fifty years of the sounding of the fifth trumpet.” From 1299, the newly founded Turkic state of the Ottomans had been slowly but surely capturing territory from the Byzantine Greeks. The loss of Nicaea was the beginning of a series of Ottoman expansion that lead to final dissolution of the Byzantine Empire.: Wikipedia.


XI ruled by permission not self autonomy. He had to send envoyes to Murad II to take his position. He was fearful of the Turks, so he postponed his coronation until he first made a new truce with Murad II, who accepted him as a vassal. The date important to us is 1449 rather 1453 when the last battle occured because at this time Constantinople had lost individual autonomy. Constantine XI was crowned at Sparta in 1449.

When Murad II died and was succeeded by Mohammed II in 1451, who set his heart on possessing Constantinople. The siege commenced April 6, 1453, and the city was taken on the 16th of May following.

The mihrab: inside the Hagia Sophia —a niche in the wall that indicates the direction of Mecca.

“After conquering Constantinople, when Mehmed II finally entered the city through what is now known as the Topkapi Gate, he immediately rode his horse to the Hagia Sophia, where he ordered the building to be protected. He ordered that an imam meet him there in order to chant the Muslim Creed: “I testify that there is no god but God. I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.” The Orthodox cathedral was transformed into a Muslim mosque through a charitable trust, solidifying Islamic rule in Constantinople.” Wikipedia

Note the pattern of Biblical prophecy whether the Papacy or the Ottoman Empire or the starting date to rebuild Jerusalem in 457 BC; the Bible recognises the individual autonomy of a nation to rule independent of other nations. “Individual autonomy is an idea that is generally understood to refer to the capacity to be one’s own person, to live one’s life according to reasons and motives that are taken as one’s own and not the product of manipulative or distorting external forces.” People mistakenly view the historical prophetic time periods as miscalculations because they miss this important point concerning autonomy and when that really occurred. By missing the point the application of prophecy become misapplied and the picture distorted. The overall picture for us today is of three powers identified by description and time lines coming from the bottomless pit to wage war across the world, bringing us into an end time scenario such as in Syria or the Middle East today where the remnants what was a communist power, Islam and Apostate Christianity are fighting. Their behaviour in war and bloodshed reveals their true character. 

Remember  Daniel 7:12  the beasts, they had their dominion taken away: yet their lives were prolonged for a season and time. 

The fall of Constantinople allowed the treasures of the Greek manuscripts they held to be shared in the 

West & gave rise to the Protestant reformation.

The fall of Constantinople before the armies of the Moslem Turks opened to Western Europe the empire’s libraries with their thousands of manuscripts. The nations west of Constantinople awoke from the sleep of centuries. For nearly a thousand years the ecclesiastical power of Rome had eliminated the study of Greek language and literature. The greatest treasure accruing to the world by the fall of 

Constantinople was the recovery of multiplied manuscripts of the Greek New Testament. The vast majority of these manuscripts were the Received Text. Having

had only the Latin Bible of Rome, called the Vulgate, the western world in general lacked the exact words written by the apostles of the revelations of Jesus. At this moment appeared the astounding scholar of the age. In erudition Erasmus of Holland has never been surpassed, in the opinion of many. He brought his gigantic intellect to bear upon the realm of classical literature.

The Vow of Mahomet II (Rev. T. R. Birks, M. A. p 319)

“the sacred icons and relics were brought from the churches , where taken to the neighbourhoods where the wall were most injured and paraded with the procession in the hope -to the people of the northern climes and the present century inexplicable and almost unthinkable- that their display would avert the threatening danger.” In bygone years they believed Mary was the protectorate of the city when but he was another race that venerated Mary but not with Icons. Image from the St. George’s Cathedral Istanbul. There is 1% christianity remaining in this Muslim country today. Had it not been for the Islamic conquest of Constantinople in 1453, the church of the Patriarchate would have been in Hagia Sophia. Prayer are sent to dead saints and images kissed and sacred relics displayed- it is a practice from pagan origins. Says one explaining this behaviour: “After all, the Bible says, “Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth” (Exodus 20:4). Of course, this verse does not just ban images of holy things.”

Mehmed II was born 1432 in Edirne. He motivated for taking the city of Constantinople by prophet Muhammad’s words, “One day, Constantinople will be conquered. How wonderful and blessed are the commander of its conquest and his soldiers!” The helmet from the military museum is inscribed with the name of Allah. This is a religious, political military power.

Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II, built the fort between 1451 and 1452 in preparation for a planned Ottoman siege on the then-Byzantine city of Constantinople, with the goal of cutting off maritime military and logistical relief that could potentially come to the Byzantines’ aid by way of the Bosphorus Strait to the Black Sea, hence the fortress’s alternative name, “Boğazkesen”, i.e. “Strait-cutter” Castle.  The Black Sea trade was thus brought to the verge of ruin. Fortifications are seen boths of the Bosphorus. 

For almost a century after the Turks had taken the ports on the Dardanelles, Constantinople still held its
own against the apparently inevitable fate. There were extensive fortification around the city with double walls and mote but less elaborate on the seaside. It was the Latins barbarous pillage and rape of the city that weaked it before the Ottomans finally took the city. The crusaders owing money to the vantians looted Constantinople for payment.  The religion of the ‘Christian’ west and actions were more barbaric than those of the Ottomans to follow. Political Catholicism has always been a barbaric war machine as testified by its history through the dark ages and in places like Northern Ireland. 

Revelation  9:18 By these three was the third part of men killed, by the fire, and by the smoke, and by the brimstone, which issued out of their mouths. The ruins of the wall still show where the cannons destroyed their walls

SUPER WEAPON: Guarding over the Dardanelles for about 400 years, the famed Ottoman super cannon is arguably one of the most important guns in history.

The gun now sits in the Royal Armouries in Fort Nelson, Hampshire, and was gifted to Queen Victoria in 1866 by Sultan Abdülâziz. Orban was Hungarian originally offered his services to the Byzantines, but emperor Constantine XI could not afford his high salary nor did he possess the materials necessary for constructing such a large siege cannon. Orban then left Constantinople and approached the Ottoman sultan Mehmed II, who was preparing to besiege the city. Claiming that his weapon could blast ‘the walls of Babylon itself.’ Orban was given abundant funds and materials by the sultan. Orban managed to build the giant size gun within three months at Adrianople, from which it was dragged by sixty oxen to Constantinople. 

The gun weighs 16.8 tons and measures 17 feet in length with a diameter of just under 3.5 feet and it fired a massive marble shot at a range of one-and-a-half miles.

The chain across the golden horn prevented the Ottomans from full access to the city, so they hauled their ships across dry land around the Dardanelles during the night at about a distance of 3 kms. According to the guide in Istanbul the ships were hauled across the land from what is now the Dolmabahçe past the Galata Tower which would at that time be under Muslim control to refloat the ships in the harbour.  Here is an image of the Roman chain used to protect the city and placed across the golden horn during the conquest of Istanbul. In 1453, the Ottoman Turks finally captured Constantinople by both bombarding its walls from ships, in the Bosporus, and with land artillery. The straits and also the Black Sea at this time was in Turkish control. 

Isaiah 9:15 The ancient and honourable, he [is] the head; and the prophet that teacheth lies, he [is] the tail.

The Fatih mosque. Fatih means conqueror. So on the site of the church of the twelve disciples Mehmed II  the conqueror placed this mosque. Here lay 13 tombs including Constantine the great’s tomb placed amongst the crypts of the twelve apostles. These move to other locations for the site of the mosque. It indicates their non regard for the Christian faith in place of Islam. 

2nd TIMELINE of Revelation 9- 6th trumpet

Revelation 9:14 Saying to the sixth angel which had the trumpet, Loose the four angels which are bound in the great river Euphrates. 9:15 And the four angels were loosed, which were prepared for an hour, and a day, and a month, and a year, for to slay the third part of men.

The timelines of the 5th & 6th Trumpet together


Above are some others peoples charts of the same prophecy that have clear explanation

“The Dolmabahçe Palace was built at a time where Turkey was upheld by European powers and it is significant that the Dolmabahce Palace is the first European-style palace in Istanbul. The Palace was ordered by the Empire’s 31st Sultan, Abdülmecid I, and bui

lt between the years 1843 and 1856, at a cost of five million Ottoman gold pounds, the equivalent of 35 tons of gold. In 1840 the four great powers of Europe,—England, Austria, Prussia, and Russia,—assumed control of all the foreign affairs of the Government of Turkey

Fourteen tons of gold was used to adorn the interior ceiling of the palace. The world’s largest Bohemian crystal chandelier, a gift from Queen Victoria, is in the centre hall. The palace has the largest collection of Bohemian and Baccarat crystal chandeliers in the world, and even the staircases are made of Baccarat crystal.”

By the 1800s the empire had been nicknamed the “Sick Man of Europe.” This term was first used in the mid-19th century to describe the Ottoman Empire. This palace has a very western influence and if one has little idea of the history of the Ottoman empire you could conclude that Ottoman wealth and self autonomy continued past 1840 until the Second World War, however self autonomy ended in 1840. 

The book ‘The Great Controversy’ accurately says this:  In the year 1840 another remarkable fulfillment of prophecy excited widespread interest. Two years before, Josiah Litch, one of the leading ministers preaching the second advent, published an exposition of Revelation 9, predicting the fall of the Ottoman Empire. According to his calculations, this power was to be overthrown “in A.D. 1840, sometime in the month of August;” and only a few days previous to its accomplishment he wrote: “Allowing the first period, 150 years, to have been exactly fulfilled before Deacozes ascended the throne by permission of the Turks, and that the 391 years, fifteen days, commenced at the close of the first period, it will end on the 11th of August, 1840, when the Ottoman power in Constantinople may be expected to be broken. And this, I believe, will be found to be the case.”–Josiah Litch, in Signs of the Times, and Expositor of Prophecy, Aug. 1, 1840. At the very time specified, Turkey, through her ambassadors, accepted the protection of the allied powers of Europe, and thus placed herself under the control of Christian nations. The event exactly fulfilled the prediction.{GC 334.4}  Note the prophetic rule which is again given in plain language here. 

Ortakoy mosque and Bosphorus Bridge connecting Europe and Asia continents, Istanbul. It was concerning Istanbul being a key waterway for the nations, valuable to others as trade routes which Istanbul had long refused passage to and their own trading waterways that lead to its demise.  Above is the Bosphorus bridge between Europe and Asia.

The Maiden’s Tower, which seemingly floats in the Bosphorus off Asia, is one of the more popular symbols of the city. Once a Byzantine tollbooth and later an Ottoman lighthouse. Roman chain was also placed across this island to the mainland to stop enemy ships. Looking out to the marmara sea through which you would travel if you were going to Bursa. 

1699, Peter the Great sent an embassy to Constantinople on board a Russian man-of-war, one of the Russian squadrons he had built in the taking of Azof, with the demand for freedom of navigation on the Black Sea for Russian ships was emphatically refused. Russian ships should not sail out of the Sea of Azof, and that Russian goods destined for Constantinople should cross the Black Sea in Turkish ships. Peter was defeated by the Turks in a battle at the Black Sea, and it was left for Catherine II to finally conquer the Black Sea coastlands for Russia. The Russian victories by Catherine the Great allowed access to the Black Sea and allowed Catherine’s government to incorporate present-day southern Ukraine, where the Russians founded the new cities of Odessa, Nikolayev. The Straits and the Black Sea was no longer a Turkish exclusive right. Her plans to overthrow Istanbul with Austria as her ally was prevented by  England, Holland, and Prussia. The Turkish commercial monopoly was broken, but its right to control and prohibit the passage of foreign warships through its territorial waters remained unimpaired. The way was open for other European countries to us the Straits for commercial trade. 

The first effect of Napoleon’s campaign in the Orient was to throw Turkey—so far as the Straits were concerned—into the hands of Russia. The appeal of the Sultan to the Czar brought a Russian fleet, which entered the Bosporus in September 1798; and the resulting alliance between Turkey and Russia was joined a few days later by England.

Treaty of Adrianople (also called the Treaty of Edirne.) The treaty opened the Dardanelles to all commercial vessels, thus liberating commerce for cereals, livestock and wood. However, it took the Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi (1833) to finally settle the Straits Question between the signatories.  Greece was given independence; and, because so many of the shipping activities of the Ottoman Empire were in Greek hands, it greatly weakened Turkish shipping.

Revolt from within the Ottoman Empire

Mehemet Ali-Ottoman Albanian commander in the Ottoman army, who rose to the rank of Pasha & self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans’ temporary approval. His rebellion placed the Ottoman Empire in jeopardy. He is regarded as the founder of modern Egypt.

In 1832, the existence of the Ottoman Empire was threatened by the great revolt of a rival Muslim rebel, a viceroy, Mehemet Ali, whose troops, overrunning most of Asiatic Turkey, taking control of Syria and threatening the Straits. Because of the situation the Sultan was obliged to invite Russia to come in, with fleet and army, and save him from the rebels. The treaty with Russia was signed in 1833 which guaranteed the existence of Turkey, by the use of Russian arms to maintain it. By this treaty the Ottomans closed the Straits to every foreign warship except those of Russia.

In 1839, war broke out again concerning Mehemet’s conquest of syria and other territories between the Sultan of Constantinople and Mehemet Ali. Mehemet’s son was sent to fight the Ottoman army and the Ottomans were defeated. So the Ottoman fleet was sent down to Alexandria but they defected to Mehemet Ali.  By a modern, well trained Egyptian army as well as bribery, it looked as though Mehemet could conquer the entire empire.

At this time Protestant nations were awakening from the dark ages and 1840 was a particularly important time of Biblical prophetic investigation in Protestant America. Between 1831 and 1844, on the basis of William Miller’s study of the Bible, and the prophecy of Daniel 8:14—”Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed,” a farmer and Baptist lay preacher, predicted and preached the return of Jesus Christ to the earth. Litch then wrote his own book, The Probability of the Second Coming of Christ About A.D. 1843. In a comment on Revelation 9, Litch predicted that the Ottoman Empire would lose power in August 1840. When on August 11, 1840, the Ottoman Empire accepted guarantees from the Great Powers, it was interpreted as a fulfillment of Bible prophecy and Litch’s interpretation. In was not long after that Turkey came into the thinking of those studying prophecy as representing the King of the North.  This is easy to understand considering the environment in which those found themselves in with all things pointed to the end of the world and the second coming. The time has passed to give us the ability to see the bigger picture and God guided the work of a commandment keeping people in a very specific way by clear prophetic utterances. 

At a crucial time in the Ottoman empire’s history ‎Mahmud II (pictured left) dies on the 1st of July 1840. His son Abdulmejid is sixteen years old when he becomes caliph of the Ottoman empire on 2nd July 1839 and now he places the empire in the hands of other nations. During Mahmud II rule, Mehmet Ali has successfully reconquered the holy cities of Medina (1812) and Mecca (1813) and much of asiatic turkey. Greece had also broken away from the empire.

“In diplomatic history, the “Eastern Question” refers to the strategic competition and political considerations of the European Great Powers in light of the political and economic instability in the Ottoman Empire from the late 18th to early 20th centuries.”

The truth is, the Ottoman power in Constantinople was impotent, and could do nothing toward sustaining itself; and it has been since the 11th of August, entirely under the dictation of the great christian powers of Europe. Nor can it longer stand at all, than they hold it up. Finally, the London Morning Herald is tight when it says “The Ottoman government is reduced to the rank of a puppet, and that the sources of its strength are entirely dried up.”

The Convention of London was signed on 15 July 1840. The Convention of London of 1840 was a treaty with the title of Convention for the Pacification of the Levant, signed on 15 July 1840 between the Great Powers of United Kingdom, Austria, Prussia, Russia on one hand and the Ottoman Empire on the other. It was not in Western powers interest that the Ottoman should be defeated in a war against Egypt. 

August 11 1840

The significance of this date is that self autonomy ended for the Ottomans, ‘they had their dominion taken away: yet their lives were prolonged for a season and time’. 

“‘Yesterday.’ the 11th of August, the sultan applied in his own capital to the ambassadors of the four Powers, to know the measures which were to be taken in reference to a circumstance vitally affecting his empire; and was only told that “provision had been made,” but he could not know what it was; and that he need give himself no alarm “about any contingency that might afterward arise!” From that time, then, they, not he, would manage that.”

August 11, 1840 the Ottoman steam ship reached Alexander with the ultimatum.  That which had been signed was put into effect. Though the ship was quarantined at Alexander, do you think the door remained shut and nothing was said or exchanged as some have suggested? The Ottman’s delivered the ultimation of which the fate of Egypt was now in others hands by Turkey’s consent and what that meant to Turkey they were uncertain as to the measures Britain and others would follow.

The British by war brought Mehemet back to the bargaining table & the Ottoman Empire’s fate was in foriegn hands- its individual autonomy was finished. The Straits was now controlled by European powers. Other nations did what Turkey could not do for themselves.

The answer to the terms of the convention of London from Mehemet Ali was no, so the British through admiral Napier bombed Beirut in the summer of 1840. By 1 July 1840 Napier, with a detached squadron and the rank of commodore, was patrolling the coast to protect British interests. In August of that year Napier appeared off Beirut and called upon Suleiman Pasha, Muhammad Ali’s governor, to abandon the town and leave Syria but there was little he could do until September, when he was joined by the allied fleet under Admiral Robert Stopford: mainly British, but also including Austrian, Ottoman and Russian warships. Open war broke out on 11 September.” There was also bombing in levant Israel.

Several points to make here

There are many who point out the Ottoman empire did not fall at the date given and that nothing actually happened. They are poor students of prophecy looking for errors. Time prophecies point to a period of powerful dominance but more accurately self autonomy. Their significance is to reach down to the end of time as it influences our world today.  Like the Papacy this power received a wound but its influence lives on. The fall of the Ottoman empire did not mean the fall of Islam. Turkey was not controlling its own destiny alone following the year 1840.  The time prophecy points to the Golden age of Ottomans. 

  • Some have said that Litch began with an erroneous date from the historian Gibbon. In fact this historical date 1299 marks when Osman the first King of the Ottoman tribes received his kingdom.  So people say just about anything because they are looking to discredit prophetic evidence and support error. 
  • A time prophecy was given for a purpose and so was for a certain length of time to point us to end time events. ‘Protestants adopted the medieval Jewish view that the “days” in the Apocalyptic prophecies represented years of literal time. Historicist Protestants also understood “the hour” of judgment determined for the sixth trumpet as covering 391 years; namely, one day, plus one month [30 days], plus one year [360 prophetic days]. ‘  So prophecy’s understanding is passed down to us from the reformation. Just as we see the beasts of Daniel 7 on the Nuremberg hall as a testimony of their understanding but the gross ignorance of the people who pass it by today. 
  • Protestants have departed from the historical view of prophetic interpretation because it leads to the conclusion of the doctrines taught by the Seventh Day Adventist movement and its teachings concerning the Sabbath and the sanctuary. The words of Christ in John 14:21-23 and Revelation 14:6-12 noting verse 12 and Revelation 22:14 should awaken their position in relation to the kingdom of God.
  • It is said that Litch seriously misstated events in the 1840s.  Some have this very restrictive view of prophecy that it all concentrates on the last day events but this is only partially true. The war on truth is expansive as it opens up from the the three woes given in Revelation and includes all the history of the Christian era. That history is of great interest for us today to determine future events.
  • There are eye witness accounts and testimonies of the impact that these prophecies had on the people of the day.  The SDA worldwide movement had it roots here that would influence millions of people. So to a person who keeps not the commandments of God this result is totally irrelevant.  
  • Sometimes one cannot see the forest for the trees so to speak and this is how many erroneously also came to view Turkey
    Samuel Morse received his first ever patent for the telegraph in 1847, at the old Beylerbeyi Palace. The telegraph signalled the dawn of a new age with its discovery in 1844

    as the King of the North. It was all about unrolling the scroll but in 1840s the scroll was just being unrolled. Many points of doctrine were still unknown and not practiced as a result of coming out of the dark ages. We at this point of time do not know everything but a whole lot more is available to know than in in the 1840s for we have knowledge and travel increased exponentially as prophesied in Daniel 12:4. 

  • Litch later repudiated the whole theory. He did not go on be a Sabbath keeper but it does not discount the monumental movement at this time to unravel the truths of prophecy. The minds of the people though often in error were coming from error to a true understanding of the gospel. Some only came so far just like we find in the various churches of the reformation. Was it any different in Jesus day? John 3:9 Nicodemus answered and said unto him, How can these things be?  3:10 Jesus answered and said unto him, Art thou a master of Israel, and knowest not these things? God is kind and patient with us because of who we are by nature and the world’s errors and influence that surround us. Often the teachings of theology schools have been set up to teach error which is passed onto the people which is passed on to children which is passed on to society. In a world of technological advance we still treat christianity with our beliefs of superstition and call it truth when we should be simply following Christ’s words. 
  • External Christian powers stepped in to prevent collapse of the Ottomans and so as other empires described in prophecy‘they had their dominion taken away: yet their lives were prolonged for a season and time’.  In fact as the empire stood in its golden age it protected certain Jewish and Christian minority interests but was a scourge on the church of Rome.
  • The Ottoman empire leads us to the world of terrorism we find ourselves in today. Apostate Christianity warring against Islamic powers. The eyes of both Rome and Islam is on domination and controlling Jerusalem. But it says in Daniel 11:45 And he (the King of the North) shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas in the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him.  
  • Pictured right the Hamidian Massacres, 1895. It is estimated that between 200,000 – 300,000 Christians lost their lives. And of course we have 9/11 and the ongoing war in Syria. 


People have many misunderstandings or doubts concerning the prophetic timelines. The prophecies relate primarily to God’s commandment keeping people and the powers that persecutes them & protect them, but all relating to His people. It just so happens that two of the largest religions in the world today which have also had a political connections are pinpointed by the time prophecies- this is why the Bible is written in symbols. Christianity is the largest religion in the world but they are not keeping the 4th commandment and often not keeping a day Holy, so it’s not the Christianity that Jesus taught, it’s just spoken of by that name for the countless denominations that do not follow the simple and plain words and testimony meaning example of Jesus. God gave His Son for us to follow yet so many still just do not get it; read again John 14:21-23. When I say this it is a generalization for also many are worshiping God to the best of their knowledge but many are willfully ignorant or having come to a point of understanding will not go any further because of family, friends and convenience and so the parable of the seeds that fell on various ground but did not flourish can be applied here. Some had no root in themselves and the result, many are called but few are chosen.

There is in the prophecy specific time periods. People who are not studying deeply think well this doesn’t fit and of course it’s in their interest to not have it fit. For example the church of Rome time period runs from the legislative authority of Justinian 1 to Napoleon and gives the church power to persecute heretics- this time period is given 7 times and starts in 538AD. It is specific to the point of recognizing the churches legislative authority by human enactments or written law. It follows the legislative enforcement that allowed the Papacy to grow from very weak to stronger than emperors; at times placing emperors on thrones. The importance of this date’s understanding is indicated by the number of times it is given in prophecy- 7 times.

One has to understand that the Catholic counter -reformation was to destroy the reformation and its recognition of the Pope as Antichrist. So what was once clear and understood and which united Protestantism is no longer understood by the vast majority of Protestants.

Here is another example -the 2300 days beginning in 457BC and ending in 1844 appears to finish for some in nowhere and for many it’s true- it has no meaning. Even the great scientist Sir Isaac Newton gives us the starting date of this great prophecy! But sadly many believing a false gospel leaves this event for them, without meaning. They verdantly oppose the perfection of character that must meet judgement. No one passes into heaven without their record passing judgement in heaven beforehand while we are on earth. Some have said that SDA movement was started on a false basis. The SDA church came out of the time of the disappointment but was not because of the movement that such an event occurred. This time of great revival was in fact an eye opened blessing to those that would seek God with all their heart. Daniel 12:12 Blessed is he that waiteth, and cometh to the thousand three hundred and five and thirty days. How real was God’s leading here? God gave more guidance and light at this time with specificity by God’s messenger who was given her first vision in 1844. God would lead His people in very plain language yet many surrounded by special truths in God’s church, remain blind to the providence of God. These are a commandment keeping people (John14:21-23) who work toward every area of character development for the purpose of finishing His work in the world prior to His second coming and 144,000 would be as streams or jets of light circling the earth with representation of every nation of the globe. From a handful of people to a group of Sabbath keepers to a worldwide movement. The SDA church would be a conduit through the messages given to makeup the final army of the Lord. Joel 2:1-5 Blow the trumpet in Zion, And sound an alarm in My holy mountain! Let all the inhabitants of the land tremble;For the day of the Lord is coming,For it is at hand:a great people and a strong; there hath not been ever the like, neither shall be any more after it, even to the years of many generations. A fire devoureth before them; and behind them a flame burneth: the land is as the garden of Eden before them, and behind them a desolate wilderness;

Another misunderstanding is what is said in Rev 10 where the angel swears that time is no longer and so it is said that this is the end of prophetic time- however another piece of time is given for the rule of the beast in Europe for a very short space of time in Rev 17. ‘Time no longer’ as stated in Revelation 10 relates to the finishing of the mystery of Godliness- this can only be completed with the right gospel and accompanying understanding of this in relation to the prophecies. The gospel of a perfect love relationship with God in body, mind, character attending a commandment keeping people and the teaching of the heavenly sanctuary will lead to a full endowment of the Spirit known as the latter rain. This is no magical happening as often taught where God does all the work and He just pardons but rather a physical, mental reality that happens in cooperation with God. To arrive at that point will often require true grit because while some might understand truth their nature still remains unconverted.

The expression time no longer relates a complete understanding of the gospel and truths and a fitting up for the job at hand so as there is a people willing and able to live fully by God’s spirit as in apostolic times. God is waiting for the response for His people to take up the last call- all the information is there for this to happen, to take up the task. Through Him this whole thing can be wrapped up and heaven become a reality. Part of making this a reality is to break the ministerial yoke which is misleading and hedging the way of laymen’s ministry and to cooperate with the true ministry. Not only that but ministers seem to think that preaching to the ‘converted’ with them sitting and listening to them because they are authorized by men, is God’s way and it certainly is not. They are often not preaching the right gospel or presenting the healing ministry, not visiting the people and stopping the true gospel message as they accept only that which comes through what they think is sanctified authorization. This decline will come to an end very soon.

Cable car to ski fields in mountainous area overlooking Bursa

The prophecy concerning the Ottoman Empire, Revelation 9. The prophecy starts from the time that Osman became King of what was then tribal groups, first conquering areas close to Bursa, Turkey today, in the surrounding area and then taking the Byzantine fortified city after a 5 year siege. Our starting date however is 1299. The verse says these locust-like beasts with men’s faces and the sting of a scorpion had a King over them and so the prophetic time of this first mentioned beast from the bottomless pit starts its time from when the Turkish tribes first took Osman (from whose name the Ottoman empire is derived), their tribal leader to be their king, having defeated the Mongolians. This power grew as they took over the Byzantine cities until Istanbul is surrounded by a large area in Ottoman control in 1449. After the death of the Byzantine emperor in 1449, his brother Constantine sent ambassadors to Anereth, the Turkish sultan to request and obtain permission to reign. The sovereignty of the Byzantines was in in effect finished.  The last Constantine was no match in history to the conquering Constantine at the Byzantine beginning. He was in a compromised situation.

The last King Constantine XI is able to rule by yielding his political independence to the Ottomans. In 1453 Constantine would die in a monumental battle against the Sultan Mehmed II in which ships were hauled for miles across the land to bypass the Roman chain stopping the passage of ships across the water inlet of the golden horn. As following a pattern the legislated agreements by human authorities in which autonomy is yielded, is recognised by the Bible as a legal agreement or enactment, in regard to prophetic events concerning nations.

The autonomy of the Ottomans was yielded in August 11, 1840 when the Western countries stepped in, preventing ongoing war between the Turkey and Egypt that would have meant the total destruction of the Ottoman empire. At this time, that is 1840 the Ottomans yielded their power by consent to western powers just as had occurred in 1449 when the Byzantines yielded their consent to the Ottomans. When you look at time periods you have to understand that human legislation is recognised by the government of heaven and takes precedent in determining the time of a nation’s rule.

Prophetic events were just unraveling in the 1840s and it is easy to see how the some have mistaken the Ottoman empire or modern Turkey or that which is represents, the Muslims as the King of the North and Egypt as the King of the South from Daniel 11. This interpretation is difficult and inconsistent with the theme of the Rome transforming itself into the little horn and its relationship to a commandment keeping people (The Roman church is the third beast that ascends out of the bottomless pit, the longest lived, the most powerful and relates to the third woe- ushering the time of the false Christ. However before this can happen the King of the North that is what I believe is consistent with the theme of Daniel- the church of Rome or its allies has to deal with opposing Muslim powers. How does the little horn accomplish world dominion? Through its influence on Protestant America, making an image to the beast and defeating what it considers the enemies of Christianity –Revelation 13).

So what is the importance here- we have pinpointed two powers that are religious and political, that have their metamorphosis from the empires from which they come. This a backdrop to reading the future that we need to understand to read it right. These wage war across the world as seen presently in Syria. America is controlled by virtually an all Roman Catholic supreme court while evangelicals are implementing a religious political system through the Trump administration which is heading towards making an image to the beast. The war of the crusaders and nations such as Spain fighting for the papacy is now making a similar pattern in the events of today. When Spain had finished fighting Muslim powers in the 1400s, they expelled the Sabbath keeping Jews out of their nation. So history will be repeated just one last time on a worldwide scale.

Eastern Question, the Agreement Signed by the Powers, Concerning the Independence of the Ottoman Empire.— {1919, SBBS 157.5}
CONVENTION {1919, SBBS 157.6}
Concluded between the courts of Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia on the one part, and the Sublime Ottoman Porte on the other, for the pacification of the Levant, signed at London, July 15, 1840. {1919, SBBS 157.7}
In the name of the most merciful God, His Highness the Sultan having addressed himself to their Majesties the Queen of the United {1919, SBBS 157.8}

Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia, the King of Prussia, and the Emperor of all the Russias, to ask their support and assistance in the difficulties in which he finds himself placed by reason of the hostile proceedings of Mehemet Ali, Pasha of Egypt,-difficulties which threaten with danger the integrity of the Ottoman Empire, and the independence of the Sultan’s throne,-their said Majesties, moved by the sincere desire of maintaining the integrity and independence of the Ottoman Empire as a security for the peace of Europe; faithful to the engagement which they contracted by the collective note presented to the Porte by their representatives at Constantinople, on the 27th of July, 1839; and desirous, moreover, to prevent the effusion of blood which would be occasioned by a continuance of the hostilities which have recently broken out in Syria between the authority of the Pasha of Egypt and the subjects of the Sultan; their said Majesties and his Highness the Sultan have resolved, for the aforesaid purpose, to conclude together a Convention, and they have therefore named as their plenipotentiaries. . . . {1919, SBBS 158.1}
Article I.-His Highness the Sultan having come to an agreement with their Majesties the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia, the King of Prussia, and the Emperor of all the Russias, as to the condition of the agreement which it is the intention of his Highness to grant to Mehemet Ali, conditions which are specified in the separate act hereunto annexed; their Majesties engaged to act in perfect accord, and to unite their efforts in order to determine Mehemet Ali to conform to that arrangement; each of the high contracting parties reserving to itself to co-operate for that purpose, according to the means of action which each may have at its disposal. {1919, SBBS 158.2}
Art. II.-If the Pasha of Egypt should refuse to accept the above-mentioned arrangement, which will be communicated to him by the Sultan, with the concurrence of their aforesaid Majesties; their Majesties engage to take, at the request of the Sultan, measures concerted and settled between them, in order to carry that arrangement into effect. In the meanwhile, the Sultan having requested the said allies to unite with him in order to assist him to cut off the communication by sea between Egypt and Syria, and to prevent the transport of troops, horses, arms, and warlike stores of all kinds from the one province to the other; their Majesties the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and the Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary and Bohemia, engage to give immediately to that effect, the necessary orders to their naval commanders in the Mediterranean. Their said Majesties further engage that the naval commanders of their squadrons shall, according to the means at their command, afford, in the name of the alliance, all the support and assistance in their power to those subjects of the Sultan who may manifest their fidelity and allegiance to their sovereign. {1919, SBBS 158.3}
Art. III.-If Mehemet Ali, after having refused to submit to the conditions of the arrangement above mentioned, should direct his land or sea forces against Constantinople, the high contracting parties, upon the express demand of the Sultan, addressed to their representatives at Constantinople, agree, in such case, to comply with the request of that sovereign, and to provide for the defense of his throne by means of a co-operation agreed upon by mutual consent, for the purpose of placing the two straits of the Bosporus and Dardanelles, as well as the capital of the Ottoman Empire, in security against all aggression. {1919, SBBS 158.4}
It is further agreed, that the forces which, in virtue of such concert, may be sent as aforesaid, shall there remain so employed as long as
their presence shall be required by the Sultan; and when His Highness shall deem their presence no longer necessary, the said forces shall simultaneously withdraw, and shall return to the Black Sea and the Mediterranean respectively. {1919, SBBS 158.5}
Art. IV.-It is, however, expressly understood, that the co-operation mentioned in the preceding article, and destined to place the straits of the Dardanelles and of the Bosporus, and the Ottoman capital, under the temporary safeguard of the high contracting parties against all aggression of Mehemet Ali, shall be considered only as a measure of exception adopted at the express demand of the Sultan, and solely for his defense in the single case above mentioned; but it is agreed, that such measures shall not derogate in any degree from the ancient rule of the Ottoman Empire, in virtue of which it has at all times been prohibited for ships of war of foreign powers to enter the straits of the Dardanelles and of the Bosporus. {1919, SBBS 159.1}
Art. V.- {1919, SBBS 159.2}
Done at London, the fifteenth of July, in the year of our Lord, 1840. {1919, SBBS 159.3}

(L. S.) Palmerston (England)
(L. S.) Neumann (Austria)
(L. S.) Bulow (Prussia)
(L. S.) Brunnow (Russia)
(L. S.) Chekib (Turkey)